i-GAME: An Implicit GTS Allocation Mechanism in IEEE 802.15.4
Ref: HURRAY-TR-060706 Publication Date: 5 to 7, Jul, 2006
i-GAME: An Implicit GTS Allocation Mechanism in IEEE 802.15.4Ref: HURRAY-TR-060706 Publication Date: 5 to 7, Jul, 2006
The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling technology for time sensitive wireless sensor networks thanks to its Guaranteed-Time Slot (GTS) mechanism in the beacon-enabled mode. However, the protocol only supports explicit GTS allocation, i.e. a node allocates a number of time slots in each superframe for exclusive use. The limitation of this explicit GTS allocation is that GTS resources may quickly disappear, since a maximum of seven GTSs can be allocated in each superframe, preventing other nodes to benefit from guaranteed service. Moreover, the GTSs may be only partially used, resulting in wasted bandwidth. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes i-GAME, an implicit GTS Allocation Mechanism in beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 networks. The allocation is based on implicit GTS allocation requests, taking into account the traffic specifications and the delay requirements of the flows. The i-GAME approach enables the use of a GTS by multiple nodes, while all their (delay, bandwidth) requirements are still satisfied. For that purpose, we propose an admission control algorithm that enables to decide whether to accept a new GTS allocation request or not, based not only on the remaining time slots, but also on the traffic specifications of the flows, their delay requirements and the available bandwidth resources. We show that our proposal improves the bandwidth utilization compared to the explicit allocation used in the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol standard. We also present some practical considerations for the implementation of i-GAME, ensuring backward compatibility with the IEEE 801.5.4 standard with only minor add-ons.
18th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS’06), IEEE, pp 183-192.